Comprehensive Preventative Health Results

Based on your age, sex and the checked lifestyle, family and personal medical details, the following preventative health measures are recommended in this year of your life.

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Abdominal Aoritc Aneurysm Screening

An Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)is is ‘blow out’ of the main artery in the stomach area. Smokers are at increase risk and a once off ultrasonography screen is recommended to detect the change before it becomes life threatening.

Alcohol Use

Alcohol intake above the world health organisation recommended levels can lead to major organ damage (especially liver and heart problems) as well as a dependency state impacting most areas of your life. Consider seriously assessing your weekly alcohol intake and modify it if excessive or impacting on your health. A liver function blood test showing the early damage is a warning sign that your body is not coping. The recommended levels are linked.

Asthma

Your asthma should be regularly reviewed based on it’s severity and your control and medications. You should have a written asthma action plan so that you know what you need to be doing to maintain normal lung function and what to do should your asthma worsen. Discuss and devise your plan with your Doctor.

Atrial Fibrillation

Atrial Fibrillation is an abnormal heart rhythm. It is important to diagnose and treat atrial fibrillation because it can cause blood clots that can block blood supply to your vital organs and lead to a stroke. It may also be a sign that you have heart disease. It is best to have this screening test done by a medical quality ECG at your Doctors.

Blood Pressure High Medical Condition

You have indicated that you have high blood pressure (also called hypertension). You will need to treat and control it for life. This may mean making lifestyle changes, taking prescribed medicines, and getting ongoing medical care.

Treatment can help control blood pressure, but it will not cure it. If you stop treatment, your blood pressure and risk for related health problems will rise. For a healthy future, follow your treatment plan closely. Work with your health care team for lifelong blood pressure control. The review times will be determined by response to treatment.

Blood Pressure Increased Risk

You have increased risk factors for High Blood Pressure. You should regularly have this checked as directed by your Doctor. The link provides information about your risks and managment options.

Blood Pressure Screening

Blood pressure should be measured annually. Blood pressure is the pressure of the blood in the arteries as the heart pumps it around the body. It does not stay the same all the time – it changes to meet your body’s needs. If blood pressure remains high, it can lead to serious problems like a heart attack, stroke, heart failure or kidney disease.

Bowel Cancer Family History

Bowel Cancer screening via colonoscopy is generally recommended ten years prior to the age of diagnosis of the family member who has had bowel cancer. (eg. father with bowel cancer at 60 years old, colonoscopy at 50 years old). Depending on the initial findings on this test your gastroenterologist will recommend regular reviews.
In some cases of bowel cancer all family members may be asked to be screened earlier because in some forms of bowel cancer there is an inherited condition that predisposes to developing bowel cancer.

Bowel Cancer Routine Screening

Colorectal (bowel) cancer is the second commonest cancer with a lifetime risk of 1 in 10 for men and 1 in 15 for women. Initial screening with a faecal occult blood test (FOBT) – a stool specimen test is recommended at age 50 and then repeat FOBT every two years afterwards.

Breast Cancer Family History

A family history of breast cancer needs careful clinical assessment. Breast examination by a doctor every six months should be started no later than 10 years earlier than the age at which the youngest family member was diagnosed with breast cancer. Annual mammography (a type of x-ray) should also be started ten years earlier (but not earlier than age 25 and not later than age 50). You should be aware of changes in your breasts. Monthly breast self examination beginning at age 20 should be considered.
If your family history includes breast, ovarian, tubal or peritoneal cancer then talk to your doctor about receiving genetic counseling and evaluation for BRCA (gene) testing. The information link has further details.

Breast Screening

Mammograms are recommended for breast cancer screening every two years after the age of 50. This examination is a radiographic test that screens for breast cancer and may detect cancers before they are able to be felt either by self or doctor examination. Breast cancer is common, with one in seven women likely to develop it. It is important to discuss your risk factors with your Doctor and present for investigation of any breast changes.

Breast Screening Over Age 75

The decision to continue regular screening mammography and breast self examination after the age of 75 years should be an individual one and take your family history, general health and personal values into account. You should be educated by a health practitioner regarding specific benefits and harms of screening. Routine mammographic screening after 75 years of age is not recommened by the US preventative Services health guide.

Breast Screening Under Age 50

The decision to start regular screening mammography and breast self examination before the age of 50 years should be an individual one and take your family history, general health and personal values into account. You should be educated by a health practitioner regarding specific benefits and harms of screening. Routine mammographic screening under 50 years of age is not recommened by the US preventative Services health guide.

Cervical Cancer Screening

An Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) test with partial genotyping should be undertaken every five years. This is a smear taken by a vaginal examination of the cervix. Cervical screening should commence at 25 years of age and women should have an exit test between 70 and 74 years of age. Women with symptoms (including pain or bleeding) can have a cervical test at any age.
Nearly all cervical cancers are caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Cervical cancer is a rare outcome of persistent infection with oncogenic (cancer causing) HPV types. The time from HPV infection to cervical cancer is usually 10 to 15 years. Cervical screening is focussed on detecting HPV, in particular types 16 and 18 that have been associated with 70% to 80% of the cases in Australia. Evidence suggests that screening for HPV every five years is more effective than, and just as safe as, screening with a Pap test every two years. Because Australia has an effective national vaccine program, the prevalence of HPV in young people 18-24 is very low. In countries with no national vaccine program PAP smear are recommended every two years commencing two years after sexual activity initiation.

Cervical or Ovarian Cancer Family History

If your mother or sister had cervical cancer, your chances of developing the disease are increased by 2 to 3 times. Some researchers suspect that some instances of this familial tendency are caused by an inherited condition that makes some women less able to fight off HPV infection than others. In other instances, women from the same family as a patient already diagnosed may be more likely to have one or more of the other non-genetic risk factors previously described in this section.  The link for further information is http://tinyurl.com/c7j2uo2

If one of your relatives has had ovarian cancer, this can raise your chance over the baseline risk:
* the average woman has a 1% (1 in 70) lifetime risk of ovarian cancer
* having one first degree relative with ovarian cancer (mother, sister or daughter) gives a 5% lifetime risk for ovarian cancer
* having two first degree relatives increases the lifetime risk to 20-30%.
The link for further information is http//tinyurl.com/l7rsg4

With the above family history it is recommended you establish a complete family history with medical records if possible.
Armed with all the information possible, obtain good genetic counseling and consider screening as directed by your Doctors.

Cholesterol and Lipid Routine Screening for Men

You should have a fasting Cholesterol and Lipids blood test done at least once every five years.  This test involves having no food and only water to drink 10 hours prior to a blood test.

Cholesterol and Lipid Routine Screening for Women

You should have a fasting Cholesterol and lipid test done as a routine every five years. This test involves fasting for 10 hours (no food and only water to drink) prior to a blood sample being taken.

Coronary Heart Disease Screening

You have indicated factors that increase your risk of Coronary Heart Disease. If you have no symptoms then the uesfulness of screening investigations to test for Coronary heart Disease are still controversial and undergoing study.
If you have concerns discuss with the Doctor the possible investigations – resting electrocardiography (ECG), exercise treadmill test (ETT), or electron-beam computerized tomography (EBCT) scanning for coronary calcium.
Symptoms of heart disease need urgent investigation. Some of the symptoms include chest pain or tightness, shortness of breath, ankle swelling or a chronic cough.

Dementia Screening

Dementia is the loss of memory combined with a change in personality and behaviour.
Alzheimers disease and reduction in brain blood supply are the two commonest causes of dementia. Risk factors include increasing age, First degree relative with Alzheimers, smoking and high blood pressure.
If Dementia is a concern discuss possible investigations and assessment of brain function with your Doctor. Early intervention can help slow the progress and assist with coping and understanding.

Dental Check-up

Most children and adults should see their dentist for a regular cleaning and check up every six to 12 months. People at a greater risk for oral diseases should have dental check ups more than twice a year. Tobacco and alcohol use, diabetes, pregnancy, periodontal and gum disease, poor oral hygiene and certain medical conditions are some of the many factors that your dentist takes into consideration when deciding how often you need your dental cleaning and check up.

Depression & Anxiety in your Teens

Mood changes that impact on your day to day living may well be treatable. Depression and Anxiety problems are often subtle and difficult to have personal insight into. If you have coping problems, poor sleep, feel sad all the time or at times overwhelmed discuss the symptoms with your health professional.

Depression and Anxiety

Mood changes that impact on your day to day living may well be treatable. Depression and Anxiety problems are often subtle and difficult to have personal insight into. If you have coping problems, poor sleep, feel sad all the time or at times overwhelmed discuss the symptoms with your health professional.

Depression and Anxiety in Men

Depression in men is a common illness. On average, one in six men will experience depression in their adult lifetime. Yet depression in men is often not recognised.  Men tend to focus on the physical symptoms, such as feeling tired or losing weight. They are also more likely to say they feel irritable or angry, rather than saying they feel ‘low’. Men are also less likely than women to talk about their moods or how they feel emotionally. This is one reason why their depression is often not picked up by themselves or by others, including their doctors.
If you have depression or anxiety problems then early detection and effective treatment may help to keep depression from becoming severe.

Diabetes - Condition Management Schedules

You have indicated that you have diabetes. This condition is one that needs careful and close monitoring by both yourself and your Diabetic health care team. Every diabetic is different and needs tailored management. The professionals involved in your care should include a Diabetic Doctor, Dietician, Eye Specialist and Foot Specialist. After full diagnosis you should request an annual plan for reviews and investigations so that you are confident in how to take control and monitor your sugar level and potential complications.

Diabetes Family History

Your family history of diabetes is a risk factor for developing diabetes.  Other risk  factors to be aware of  include being overweight, having a high waist-circumference and living  a sedentary lifestyle.
You should know the symptoms of diabetes although most people have the problem for up to seven years before it is diagnosed! Consider having an annual  screening blood sugar level test (BSL)  done. To better determine your risk your Doctor may order a Glucose Tolerance test (GTT) if you have pre-diabetes risk factors.

Diabetes Routine Screening - Adults

It is recommended that adults with a normal glucose (sugar) level be tested for diabetes every three years.  Annual tests should be done if you have increased risks such as being overweight, inactive and a family history of diabetes.
Most people do not have any symptoms when they develop type 2 diabetes. However, when the levels of glucose in the blood are particularly high (this is common in type 1 diabetes), symptoms can include weight loss, tiredness and lack of energy, excessive thirst, blurred vision, increased infections and frequent urination.
Occasionally, the onset of diabetes can be abrupt. This is particularly the case with type 1 diabetes. The symptoms include: Loss of appetite, weight loss, vomiting, excessive passing of urine, atered consciousness and coma.
Seek immediate medical advice if these symptoms occur.

Diabetes Routine Screening - Under 20

Young people who are at risk  for developing diabetes should be tested every two years. Risks include being overweight, inactive and a family history of diabetes.
Most people do not have any symptoms when they develop type 2 diabetes. However, when the levels of glucose in the blood are particularly high (this is common in type 1 diabetes), symptoms can include weight loss, tiredness and lack of energy, excessive thirst, blurred vision, increased infections and frequent urination.
Occasionally, the onset of diabetes can be abrupt. This is particularly the case with type 1 diabetes. The symptoms include: Loss of appetite, weight loss, vomiting, excessive passing of urine, atered consciousness and coma.
Seek immediate medical advice if these symptoms occur.

Dietician (Nutrition) Counselling

Healthy eating counselling and education should be done as you have known risk factors for cardiovascular and diet-related chronic disease.  Make an appointment with a dietician and/or review the healthy eating link.

Exercise Recommendations

Do moderately intense cardio 30 minutes a day, five days a week
Or
Do vigorously intense cardio 20 minutes a day, 3 days a week
And
Do eight to 10 strength-training exercises, eight to 12 repetitions of each exercise twice a week.

Moderate-intensity physical activity means working hard enough to raise your heart rate and break a sweat, yet still being able to carry on a conversation. It should be noted that to lose weight or maintain weight loss, 60 to 90 minutes of physical activity may be necessary. The 30-minute recommendation is for the average healthy adult to maintain health and reduce the risk for chronic disease.
Use the Information link to learn more about the guidelines and to make physical activity a regular part of your life.

Adults with chronic conditions should develop an activity plan with a health professional to manage risks and take therapeutic needs into account. This will maximize the benefits of physical activity and ensure your safety.

Eye Disease Family History

A comprehensive eye examination should be done as you have a family  history of eye disease.  Many eye problems have changes found on only on special tests (eg glaucoma and macular degeneration). Most eye diseases appear long before you may be aware of them. Early intervention may save your sight.

Eye Examination - Routine

A routine eye examination should be done every two years to detect early changes that you may not notice now but might lead later to vision loss.
Your best defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. See an eye care professional right away if you have a sudden change in vision or everything looks dim or if you see flashes of light. Other symptoms that need quick attention are pain, double vision, fluid coming from the eye and inflammation.

Eye Problem Medical Condition

You have indicated that you have eye problems.  Depending on the condition that you have your eye specialist will guide you on how often you should have reviews and what symptoms need urgent attention.  The link details some common eye diseases.

Eye and Vision Screening in Children

Between 2% to 4% of preschool-aged children have amblyopia, an alteration in the visual neural pathway in the developing brain that can lead to permanent vision loss in the affected eye.  The common name is ‘Lazy eye’ and usually occurs in one eye. Identification of vision impairment before school entry could help identify children who may benefit from early interventions to correct or to improve vision.
Eye examination and vision testing should be done at least once between the ages of 3 & 5 years.

First Trimester Screen

This screen is done at 10-13 weeks of pregnancy and involves a blood test and ultrasound and will give you a statistical risk regarding chromosomal abnormalities (eg Down Syndrome, Trisomy 18 and Trisomy 21).

Fluoride Supplementation

Fluoride supplementation is recommended for preschoolers older than six months in areas where the primary water source is deficient in Fluoride. Contact your Dentist for dosage recommendations.

Hearing Assessment

Half of the children born with hearing loss have no identifiable risk factors.   Newborn hearing screening testing is highly accurate and leads to earlier identification and treatment of infants with hearing loss.

Hearing Assessment

Hearing is readily assessed and should be done this year.  One simple clinical technique is the whispered voice test used to assess hearing. Over the age of 50 hearing problems are common and can impact many areas of your life if left unchecked.

Heart Disease Family History

Although there are no national guidelines for screening and treating individuals with a family history of heart disease, if your have family history of premature coronary heart disease (before 55 for men and
before 65 for women) you should see your Doctor to determine the most appropriate screening and
preventive measures.  At the very least you should have a fasting lipid profile done and your blood pressure checked annually. Depending on your risk further investigations may be recommended.

High Cholesterol Medical Condition

Your high Cholesterol is a risk factor for the development of cardiovasular disease.  Not all people with high cholesterol levels get heart disease.  The three big risk factors are smoking, high blood pressure and high cholesterol.  The most effective way to lower cholesterol is to reduce animal fats in the diet.  Depending on how high your cholesterol is, and which types of body fats are involved, your Doctor will recommend a management and review plan to reduce your risk.

Immunisation Schedule

The web link enables you to put in your child’s birthday and receive a complete list of immunisations that should be completed.

Immunisation Teen Schedule

The web link details the recommended teen immunisations.

Influenzae Risk Vaccination

Specific Medical conditions put you at increased risk of complications from seasonal influenzae. The best prevention is vaccination.

Influenzae Vaccination

The flu is a contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. It can cause mild to severe illness, and at times can lead to death. The best way to prevent the flu is by getting a flu vaccination each year.

Intimate Partner Violence

Women experiencing intimate partner violence often don’t tell others about it and don’t ask for help.   The good news is that clinicians can make a real difference for women suffering from intimate partner violence by helping get them the support they need. If you are experiencing violence or abuse of any form talk to your Doctor.

Iron Deficiency Screening

Iron is an important dietary mineral that is involved in various bodily functions. It is essential in providing energy for daily life. Iron deficiency means less oxygen is delivered to the cells. This can lead to fatigue, tiredness and decreased immunity. You should have an iron level blood test done.

Iron Deficiency in Children

Iron is an important dietary mineral that is involved in various bodily functions, including the transport of oxygen in the blood. This is essential in providing energy for daily life. Iron is also vital for brain development.

Iron Supplementation Recommendations

Baby’s iron stores run low in the second half of their first year. Iron deficiency can result if their diet doesn’t include enough iron-rich solid food. At age six months, two servings per day of plain, iron-fortified infant cereal can start to be given. Around approximately seven to nine months of age, plain pureed meats can be offered. Late introduction of solids into the baby’s diet is a common cause of iron deficiency in this age group.

Kidney Disease

If you have or are devloping kidney disease the link is a useful resource for information. You review times will be recommended by your Kidney specialist.

Kidney Disease Family History

Having a member of your family with kidney disease increases your risk of developing a similar problem.
Many types of chronic kidney disease have a familial cause or relationship including diabetes, polycystic kidney disease, reflux and a type of nephritis (called Alport’s syndrome). However in most cases, acute renal failure is not hereditary.
The first step in assessing your level of risk for developing kidney failure is to understand the cause of kidney failure in other family members. If there is any uncertainty about the cause of another family member’s kidney failure, it would be advisable to have a kidney check with your local doctor. This involves a urine test for protein, a blood pressure check and a blood test for kidney function.

Kidney Disease Medical Condition

If you have kidney disease, it does not mean that you will develop kidney failure.  Only a few people with kidney or urinary problems have long-lasting kidney damage and even fewer have kidney failure.
Kidney failure occurs when the kidneys are no longer able to remove waste from your blood and control the level of fluid in the body. Kidney failure can happen suddenly or gradually. People with kidney failure need dialysis or a transplant to stay alive.
In many cases, the signs of disease aren’t noticed until the kidneys are close to failure. You can lose up to 90 per cent of kidney function before you even feel sick.
Your review times and investigations will be determined by your Kidney (Renal) Specialist.

Mental Health Illness Family History

Mental illnesses have many causes (caused by the interaction of various genetic and environmental factors). Causes may include a reaction to environmental stresses, genetic factors, biochemical imbalances, or a combination of these. Because genetic factors are involved, when one family member is affected, other close relatives may be at increased risk. At this time, no genetic tests are available for mental illness. The risks are detailed in the link. If you, or a family member, have concerns talk to your health professional.

Mental Health Problems

You indicate that you have a history of mental health problems. It is recommended that you have a mental health care professional that you see regularly and who is able to guide and educate you about your condition, its treatment and how often you should be reviewed.  The link is a useful resource for reliable information.

Newborn Screening

Every newborn should be offered a blood test to check for the presence of particular metabolic or genetic disorders, including phenylketonuria (PKU), hypothyroidism, cystic fibrosis and sickle cell anaemia. The benefit of this test is early detection – many complications of these disorders can be avoided with prompt treatment.
Usually, a blood sample is taken between 48 and 72 hours after birth.

Osteoporosis (Bone density) Screening

Osteoporosis means ‘bones with holes’. Over the age of 65 bones can lose their strength and density, become fragile and break (fracture) more easily because of calcium loss. Breaks are most common in the spine, hip and wrist and often occur after only a minor fall or knock.There may be no early signs to show you have osteoporosis and a bone density screen is recommended

Osteoporosis (Bone density) Screening for Men

Osteoporosis means ‘bones with holes’. Over the age of 65 bones can lose their strength and density, become fragile and break (fracture) more easily because of calcium loss. Breaks are most common in the spine, hip and wrist and often occur after only a minor fall or knock.There may be no early signs to show you have osteoporosis and a bone density screen is recommended every two years.

Osteoporosis After Menopause

You have indicated some of the risk factors for the early development of osteoporosis. Osteoporosis means ‘bones with holes’.  Bones can lose their strength and density, become fragile and break (fracture) more easily because of calcium loss. Breaks are most common in the spine, hip and wrist and often occur after only a minor fall or knock.There may be no early signs to show you have osteoporosis and a bone density screen is recommended. Talk to your Doctor about your risk and the opportunity to screen and intervene before a problem develops.

Osteoporosis Family History

Research suggests that heredity and genetics play a major role in osteoporosis (thin weakened bones). If either of your parents had osteoporosis or a history of broken bones, you are more likely to get it too. Also, if one of your parents had a noticeable amount of height loss or a spine that curved forward, they may have had osteoporosis. The link is an osteoporosis quiz with further links for advice and screening tests.

Osteoporosis Medical Condition

You have indicated that you have osteoporosis. Regular bone mineral density  testing can tell you if the lifestyle/self-care measures you’ve chosen to take are working.
According to the National Osteoporosis Foundation, people who take medication for osteoporosis should have a bone density test by a central dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) machine every two years. If you’re not on osteoporosis medication and are doing well (no fractures or additional risk factors), you might decide to have BMD testing every 3 to 5 years.
You should work closely with your doctor to determine to best testing schedule for you as other medical conditions might impact on how often you should be checked.

Osteoporosis Risk Screening

Osteoporosis means ‘bones with holes’. Bones can lose their strength and density, become fragile and break (fracture) more easily because of calcium loss. Breaks are most common in the spine, hip and wrist and often occur after only a minor fall or knock.There may be no early signs to show you have osteoporosis.  The link has a risk quiz that you should do to determine if you are at increased risk and need further investigation.

Ovarian Cancer Screening

If you have a family history of Ovarian, tubal or peritoneal cancer you may benefit from screening and genetic counseling that allows informed decision-making about testing and further preventative treatment. This counseling should be done by suitably trained health care providers.
There is fair evidence that prophylactic surgery for these women significantly decreases ovarian cancer incidence.

Pregnancy - Genetic Abnormality Screening

Chorionic Villous sampling (CVS) and Amniocentesis are procedures that test the babies cells and should be discussed with your Obstetrician and may be recommended because you are over 35 years of age.  These procedures should also be considered if:
* You have a family history of an inherited disorder, either on your side of the family or on your partner’s side.
* You already had a baby with chromosomal or other abnormalities.
* Your ultrasound test results showed a possible abnormality.
* You are particularly anxious about the possibility of abnormalities.

Pregnancy Breastfeeding Education

During your pregnancy learn about breastfeeding techniques and have your Doctor do an examination to ensure your breasts and nipples are unlikely to have any problems. Early intervention with inverted nipples can help you breastfeed. Breastfeeding offers many advantages to both you and the baby.

Pregnancy CVS or Amniocentesis Screen

These pregnancy procedures should be consideredand discussed with your Obstetrician if:
* You have a family history of an inherited disorder, either on your side of the family or on your partner’s side.
* You already had a baby with chromosomal or other abnormalities.
* Your ultrasound test results showed a possible abnormality.
* You are particularly anxious about the possibility of abnormalities.
CVS (Chorionic villous sampling) and Amniocentesis involve genetic study of the baby’s cells in the first three months of pregnancy.

Pregnancy Diabetes Screening

A pregnancy diabetes screen should be done between 24 and 28 weeks of your pregnancy. This involves a blood test taken after a sweet drink.

Pregnancy Doctor Visits and Tests

Your Doctor or Obstetrician will have a protocol for antenatal care. The attached information link has a scheduler to give an outline of one pattern of review times and lots of useful details about your pregnancy.
It is important to present early to your Doctor – before getting pregnant if possible – to determine services available in your area and recommendations.

Pregnancy Sexually Transmitted Infection Screening

You should have a full sexually transmitted infection screen as soon as you discover you are pregnant. This involves a urine test (chlamydia and gonorrhoea) and a blood sample (hepatitis, HIV, syphillis). A repeat screen may be done later in your pregnancy.

Pregnancy and Alcohol

There is no lower limit of alcohol intake that can be guaranteed to be completely safe in pregnancy so the safest thing is to stop drinking altogether while you are pregnant. If you drank alcohol early on before you knew you were pregnant, the risk to your baby from low-level drinking is likely to be low.

Pregnancy and Folic Acid Supplementation

All women planning or capable of pregnancy should take a daily supplement containing 0.4 to 0.8 mg (400 to 800 µg) of folic acid. 50% of pregnancies are unplanned so you should make sure your take adequate levels in your daily diet.

Pregnancy and Recreational Drugs

Simply put, there are not safe recreational drugs in pregnancy. Seek help if you have problems stopping immediately.

Prostate Cancer Family History

If your father or brother/s have had prostate cancer, particularly if it was picked up before they turned 60, discuss the pros and cons of being tested with your doctor.
While younger men are less likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer than older men, the younger a man is when he develops prostate cancer the more likely the cancer will threaten his health and life. This is because the cancer has more time to progress.

Prostate Cancer Screening

Screening men for prostate cancer who have no symptoms is not currently recommended.
More needs to be known about the natural progression of the disease and evidence showing a net benefit of screening.
The blood test (Prostate Specific Antigen or PSA) and digital rectal examination (one finger examination in the anus)  are not great screening tools for prostate cancer.  They miss too many cancers and pick up too many false positives.
Due to the significant gaps in evidence about the effectiveness of prostate cancer screening and early treatment, the prevailing public health approach is to support patient-centred informed decision-making when individual decisions about prostate cancer testing need to be made.
If you have urinary symptoms – blood in the urine, difficulty starting to urinate, poor stream,  difficulty stopping and having to go to the toilet a lot – then you need to discusss these with your Doctor.

Recreational Drug Use

It always helps to be educated about drug use and complications. Your Doctor is a person with whom you can discuss issues confidentiality. Many emotional disorders are linked with drug use and some infectious diseases should be screened for regularly.

Recreational Drug Use

The use of recreational and illegal drugs can result in many life, health and lifestyle problems. The link has a massive resource of information and advice.  Use it, educate yourself and then contact your Doctor on where to go to receive help.

Sex in your Teens Years

The link has lots of useful information regarding teen and young adult sex.  If you are having sex then you need to be educated about the risks, the help and advice available.
If you have any symptoms or signs of a sexually transmissable infection (STI) or have had multiple partners or sex without a condom then see you Doctor for advice and a sexual health check-up.

Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) Screening

You only have to had sex once to be at risk of a sexually transmitted infection (STI).  Sexually transmissible infections include chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, genital herpes, scabies, pubic lice (crabs), hepatitis and HIV (the virus that causes AIDS).  It is recommended that you talk to your doctor about having a check–up, especially if you have had multiple partners or sex without condom use. Some STI’s do not produce any symptoms or signs.

Sexually transmitted Infection Screening

You should have an annual Chlamydia Screen (a urine test) done annually, especially if you have had multiple partners or sex without a condom. Chlamydia is common, often has no symptoms but can lead to problems over time. Talk to your Doctor about other sexually transmitted infection risks and consider screening tests if relevant.

Skin Cancer Family History

A family history of skin cancer means you should consider having a whole body skin check as part of your annual health screen as well as the routine recommendations.  Some skin cancers can occur in areas that have never seen the sun.  Melanoma, a particularly dangerous skin cancer, has an average age of diagnosis of 37.  It is never to late to start a protection and screening plan.

Skin Cancer Personal History

There are many and varied types of skin cancers. The treatment, monitoring and long term management required will be guided by your health professional. It is never too late to further protect your skin.  The link gives details of the many skin growths. Find out your specific diagnosis and educate yourself about recommended review times and management.

Skin Cancer Routine Screening

Routine skin examinations you can do yourself  every three months.  Keep a record of the dates you check your skin and make notes about anything you’re keeping an eye on. If you are concerned about anything you should get your skin examined  by your Doctor.

Smoking Advice

The best day to stop smoking is today. See your Doctor for supportive counseling and advice as to the best option to help you quit.  There are many proven ways to stop smoking including counseling, hypnosis, nicotine replacement therapy and desire modification medication.
Consider asking about influenza and pneumococcal vaccines to avoid serious infections that are made worse by smoking.

Smoking Lung Screening

It is recommended that you undergo annual screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) if you have a 30 pack-year smoking history and currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. Screening should not be done if you have not smoked for 15 years or have a health problem that substantially limits life expectancy or the ability or willingness to have curative lung surgery.
Although lung cancer screening is not an alternative to smoking cessation, there is adequate evidence that annual screening for lung cancer with LDCT in a defined population of high-risk persons can prevent a substantial number of lung cancer–related deaths.  Screening cannot prevent most lung cancer–related deaths, and smoking cessation remains essential.

Smoking and Pregnancy

If you smoke and you are pregnant, or planning to become pregnant, you are strongly advised to stop smoking. This is to benefit your health, and the health of your baby. Seek help from your Doctor or health professional if you find it difficult to stop smoking.

Syphilis Screening

Syphilis is a sexually transmissible infection (STI) caused by a bacterium called Treponema pallidum. It can affect both men and women. Syphilis is transmitted through close skin-to-skin contact and is highly contagious when the syphilis sore (chancre) or rash is present.
The incubation period for syphilis ranges from 10 days to three months. You can pick up syphilis through oral, vaginal or anal sex with a person who has recently become infected. Syphilis can also be transmitted from mother to baby during pregnancy and at birth.  Since 2002, the number of people with infectious syphilis has increased rapidly, mainly among gay men and other men who have sex with men. Increased prevalence rates include a history of incarceration or commercial sex work, geography, race/ethnicity, and being a male younger than 29 years. Consider screening if you fall into any of these categories.

Thyroid Disease Family History

A family history of thyroid disease increases your risk for developing thyroid disease. The risk is slightly greater if you have a first-degree female relative (mother, sister, daughter) with thyroid disease.
A family history of having any autoimmune disease slightly increases your risk of developing an autoimmune thyroid disease such as Hashimoto’s disease or Graves’ disease.
The information link details the other risk factors that may be relevant. From fatigue, weight changes, and neck fullness to depression, anxiety and hair loss, thyroid disease can cause many symptoms. Screening is done with a simple blood test and sometimes with a neck gland scan.

Thyroid Disease Personal History

If you have a thyroid condition you should have a review policy organised with your Doctor. There are many and varied thyroid conditions. Some require close monitoring (e.g. Thyroid cancer ever four months) whilst others can be checked annually or with symptom change.  The link details a series of patient education brochures for the various conditions.

Vegetarian and Vegan Diets for Adolescents and Children

If your child is on a vegetarian diet, it is a good idea to see a health professional for advice about a balanced diet, supplements and the need for screening tests.  The link has good advice about the things to consider when raising children and young adults on a vegetarian or vegan diet.  The dietary needs of children, particularly young children, need careful understanding.

Vegetarian and Vegan Health

Some blood tests are recommended during the initial period. Once you find a diet which meets all of your body’s requirement, you can stop the blood tests.  Anemia is the main concern and can be caused by a deficiency from iron, vitamin B12 and/or folate. People’s main source of iron and B12 come from meats, such as beef, pork and poultry.
Outside of vitamins and minerals, you should also be sure to get enough proteins and fats. Legumes and nuts are a decent source of proteins. Despite the bad press over cholesterol, the human body has a daily cholesterol requirement. Cholesterol is a fat found in meats. Some vegetarians choose to eat eggs, which are a great source of proteins and cholesterol, while vegans do not. Deficiencies in either proteins, fats or both can be harmful to the body. Blood tests can detect when there is a deficient of either.

Vegetarian and Vegan Health for Women

You should consider having blood tests while settling into a vegetarian or vegan diet.  Once you find a diet which meets all of your body’s requirement, you can stop the blood tests. The major concern is anemia caused by a deficiency from iron, vitamin B12 and/or folate. People’s main source of iron and B12 come from meats, such as beef, pork and poultry. Unfortunately, there is no good source outside of meats. A multivitamin can help. Folate is less of a concern since many brands of orange juice come fortified with folate. However, there is one major concern with folate. If you are a woman of child bearing age, should you conceive, a greater amount of folate is required. Folate deficiency can lead to a rare type of birth defect called “neural tube defect,” which can leave the child with severe neurological dysfunction.
Outside of vitamins and minerals, you should also be sure to get enough proteins and fats. Legumes and nuts are a decent source of proteins. Despite the bad press over cholesterol, the human body has a daily cholesterol requirement. Cholesterol is a fat found in meats. Some vegetarians choose to eat eggs, which are a great source of proteins and cholesterol, while vegans do not. Deficiencies in either proteins, fats or both can be harmful to the body. Blood tests can detect when there is a deficient of either.

Weight Screening

Do this simple link check on your weight and height annually to ensure you remain in a healthy range over the years. If you change from the previous year consider why. A healthy weight reflects a a healthy diet and exercise level.  If your body mass index (BMI) is over 30 it is recommended that your see your Doctor and get help in initiating a program to attain a healthy weight range.

Weight and Height in Children

Children should have their growth – height and weight measurements – done annually and compared to the standards so that concerns can be addressed early.

Notes

This report and any action recommended should be discussed with your health professional.

The guidelines are general in nature and based on the data provided, not your full medical history.

They are not diagnostic guidelines.

There may be other recommendations relevant to your health. If in doubt, ask your Doctor.

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